Military expenditure
  Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific
IJN war expenditure of China and South
Year19371938 1939194019411942194319441945
China5.6% 4.8%3.9%3.9%7.4%4.6%12.1%30.6%12.8%
South- ---0.7%5.4%5.6%9.8%2.3%
Main enemy of IJN was USN in the Pacific War naturally. But surprisingly temporary war expenditure of China was almost 3 times compared with South in 1944, when IJA and IJN advocated the battle of Philippines. This is why we call the war 'Greater East Asia War'.

If IJN had not spent in China since 1937, the amount would be the cost of 100 aircraft carriers of Unryu class!
Morimoto p.66
Unryu class

IJN actioned dispatch of her marines in Shanghai Incident. IJN land bombers flew from Kyushu and bombarded main China land. IJN had not competed with USN but domestic IJA ironically. Pilots of carrier bomber and fighers experienced combats with China air force including flying tigers. They were very skilled as well as USN pilots, when the Pacific Wars broke. Such IJN skilled pilots might be lost, the result showed history.

IJA war expenditure 1937-1941
China12.5%14% 18.6%17%13%
Manchuria5.3% 7.4%11%8.8%18.8%
Mainland78.4% 76.2%67.8%71.3%(59.2%)
IJA fought China mainly, although IJA had to prepare war in her mainland.
Morimoto p.64

Japan had dispatched 1.72 million troops in China including Manchuria in August 1945, which was 67% of all the troops.[4] Maesaka's data of China includes Manchuria, maybe.

IJA war expenditure 1941-1945
China31.3% 24.4%27.2%53.3%30.2%
South- 8.9%16.2%22.6%3.9%
Mainland64.2% 54.6%-22.4%56.3%

 Ratio of military expenditure of budget
Ratio of direct military expenditure 1894-1928 [%]
Japanese military expenditure increased, when Japan participated wars. Japanese-Sino war was during 1894-1895. The military expenditure was almost 70 %. Japanese-Russo war was during 1904-1905. The military expenditure exceeded 80 %. The war almost had destroyed Japanese economy against one of powers. Military expenditure increased in 1918-1919 because of Siberian Intervention.

Ratio of direct military expenditure 1931-1944 [%]
Chinese Incident ocurred in 1937. The next year, the military expenditure ratio exceeded Japanese-Sino war. It lasted almost five years before the Pacific War. Japanese economy almost wore out. The military expenditure reached 85.5 % in 1944 in the Pacific War.[3] USN siege ocurred hunger in Japan mainland in 1945. Japan could not continue the Pacific War, though Japanese troops had power in China.

The table is another data of direct military expenditure. There are difference from the previous data, 0.4 % in 1931 and 23.3 % in 1937.
Military expenditure ratio 1931-1937
Military30.8% 35.2%38.3%43.6%46.8%47.2%45.7%
Civil eng.6.0% 10.2%9.9%8.4%6.9%5.9%5.1%
Bond14.5% 12.3%14.9%16.7%16.9%15.9%14.8%

 Ratio of military expenditure of budget
GDP index and military expenditure ratio
Raito of military expediture of Japan was doublefold of UK and US and threefold of Germany[1]. Japanese military expenditure of GDP ratio increased to 30.2 % from 23.1 %[2]. While US was 33.5 % from 11.2 %. It meant Japan was slower than US to prepare total war. Now Japan expends only 1 % of GDP for military expenditure. Japan expended 17 % in 1940 just before the Pacific War. While US exceeded Japan in 1942. US GDP showed high increase.

 Obama backs basic science
Obama's budget request for 2011 ($ million) Nature, no7281, p595
(basic and applied research)
Department of Homeland Security
(science and technology)
EPA's budget is twice of DOE. NIH and NASA budget are big. I think how US people are security minded. Japanese people think that security and water are free.

[1] Maesaka, p167
[2] Morimoto, p374-382
[3] Hinkoku, p51-52
[4] Maesaka, p342

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